Домой Век 16 век Иероним Босх «Святой Иоанн на Патмосе»

Иероним Босх «Святой Иоанн на Патмосе»


Автор: Босх Иероним (Hieronymus Bosch)
Название: «Святой Иоанн на Патмосе»
Год написания: 1504-1505 годы
Место: Государственный музей, Берлин
Направление: Ранняя Нидерландская Живопись, Возрождение

Юный апостол Иоанн изображён на острове Патмос, куда его сослал император Домициан, и где он создал своё Откровение. Вероятно, эта книга и лежит у него на коленях. Его кроткий взор устремлён к представшему ему видению: «жена, облечённая в солнце; под ногами её луна». На её появление указывает Иоанну ангел, чья тонкая фигура и полупрозрачные крылья выглядят не намного более вещественными, чем призрачная, окутанная дымкой панорама голландского города на горизонте. Босх, быть может, под влиянием своих предшественников, обращавшихся к этому сюжету, на сей раз отказался от столь излюбленного им изображения шабаша бесов, и даже изображённые слева внизу горящие корабли и маленький монстр справа, навеянные образами Апокалипсиса, не могут серьёзно нарушить ту идиллическую обстановку, в которой Иоанн радуется явлению Девы Марии «во славе». Монстр, изображённый Босхом в правом нижнем углу картины, полностью подпадает под библейское описание саранчи, данное Иоанном Богословом. Однако смирённое зло берёт реванш на оборотной, внешней стороне доски, где написанный в технике гризайли, поток бесов и монстров, фосфоресцируя подобно глубоководной рыбе, льётся по двойному кругу. По внешнему кругу разворачиваются сцены Страстей, завершающиеся наверху кульминацией распятия. Во внутреннем круге повторяется изображение Голгофы, символически обозначенной в виде скалы, на вершине которой свил своё гнездо пеликан. Эта птица, по распространённому поверью, кормящая птенцов кровью, бьющей из собственной груди, — традиционный символ жертвы, принесённой Христом. Предполагается, что «Св. Иоанн на Патмосе» являлся боковой створкой утраченного триптиха, судя по направлению взгляда Иоанна — правой.

Источник: wikipedia


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